1. Should German schools teach how many people Germany killed in World War II?
Yes, of course, they should. This is the one question that pretty much everyone should get right.
2. How many was it?
World War II, including war-related diseases and famines, killed some 80 million people. Excluding some 30 million killed in Asia brings the total down to 50 million. Excluding some 6 million Germans and Austrians and a half million Italians as having been killed by the Allies (though of course also by their own governments) brings the total down to 43-and-a-half million. Of those, some 30 million were killed as civilians or soldiers in the course of the war, including from war-related diseases and famines — the majority of them from the Soviet Union. The other 13 million were killed in German camps, including 6 million Jews, 3 million Soviet prisoners of war, 2 million Soviet civilians, 1 million Polish civilians, 1 million Yugoslav civilians, 200,000 gypsies, and thousands of political prisoners, homosexuals, and people with mental or physical disabilities.
3. Should U.S. schools teach how many people the United States killed in wars on Native Americans, in the Philippines, in Vietnam, or in Iraq?
I would hope that everyone would answer yes to this one, too.
4. How many was it?
The biggest cause of death among Native Americans in the colonies that would become the United States was the spread of diseases brought by European people and their animals. At least 10 million Native Americans were reduced in numbers dramatically in the earliest years of colonization. From those earliest years up to the twentieth century, the intentional eradication of the remaining Native Americans was openly pursued by many European Americans, including through the intentional spreading of disease, starvation, ethnic cleansing, and violent murder on a small and large scale. Certainly tens of thousands, and probably hundreds of thousands of Native Americans were killed in wars waged by the United States. mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin”>PLOS Medicine journal survey, led by public health expert Amy Hagopian of the University of Washington in Seattle, found a half-million Iraqis had been killed by the war.
5. How many Africans were put on ships to the United States in chains?
6. How many made it there alive?
Approximately 7. How many people lived enslaved in the United States before slavery was officially ended?
The total number of people who lived all or part of their lives enslaved between 1776 and 1865 can only be guessed at, but the 1860 census tells us that there were 3.75 million people enslaved in the United States in 1860, or roughly 10 percent of the nation’s population.
8. How many after that?
As documented in Douglas Blackmon’s book, minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi”>Montgomery Advertiser editorialized: “Forgiveness is a Christian virtue and forgetfulness is often a relief, but some of us will never forgive nor forget the damnable and brutal excesses that were committed all over the South by negroes and their white allies, many of whom were federal officials, against whose acts our people were practically powerless.” This was a publicly acceptable position in Alabama in 1903: slavery should be tolerated because of the evils committed by the North during the war and during the occupation that followed. Prison labor continues in the United States. Mass incarceration "Times New Roman"”> as a tool of racial oppression. Enslaved farm labor "Times New Roman"”> as well. So does the use of "Times New Roman"”> to create convicts.
9. Who was "Times New Roman"”>Olaudah Equiano had been enslaved in Africa and brought to the United States, probably Virginia, but it was in London that he found his voice, told his story in a best-selling book, filled debating halls, and became a leader in the movement to free all others. He was one of, if not the first, black to speak publicly in Britain. He did as much to end the slave trade as anyone, and it might have gone on considerably longer without him.
10. What percentage of deaths in wars of the past half-century have been civilian?
There is a great deal of controversy, poor information, and misinformation in reports on war casualties, but it is almost universally understood that in many wars up through World War I the majority of the deaths, not counting deaths from war-related disease epidemics, were the deaths of soldiers. Similarly, there is little dispute that during World War II and most, if not all, major wars since, the majority of the deaths have been the deaths of civilians. In some wars, including wars fought by rich against poor nations, the civilian death toll has been extremely high, and the one-sidedness of the death toll (including civilians and combatants) equally high. The only real controversy is over exactly how large a majority of war deaths are civilian, and part of that stems from choices over whom to include — such as whether to include the delayed deaths of the wounded, etc. In the American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 104, No. 6, June 2014: e34-e47, we read: “Since the end of World War II, there have been 248 armed conflicts in 153 locations around the world. The United States launched 201 overseas military operations between the end of World War II and 2001, and since then, others, including Afghanistan and Iraq. During the 20th century, 190 million deaths could be directly and indirectly related to war — more than in the previous 4 centuries…. The proportion of civilian deaths and the methods for classifying deaths as civilian are debated, but civilian war deaths constitute 85% to 90% of casualties caused by war, with about 10 civilians dying for every combatant killed in battle. The death toll (mostly civilian) resulting from the recent war in Iraq is contested, with estimates of 124,000 to 655,000 to more than a million, and finally most recently settling on roughly a half million. Civilians have been targeted for death and for sexual violence in some contemporary conflicts. Seventy percent to 90% of the victims of the 110 million landmines planted since 1960 in 70 countries were civilians.”
11. How many people has the United States killed in wars, large and small, since 1950?
Adding up the millions killed in U.S. wars in Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Iraq, Afghanistan, and dozens of other places, plus proxy wars in Afghanistan, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, East Timor, Guatemala, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Sudan, plus the drone wars and secret operations, the total is probably 20 to 30 million. Needless to say, blame for many of these deaths goes also to many other nations and participants.
12. How many democratic governments has the U.S. government overthrown?
Here is a list of 57 U.S. attempts to overthrow foreign governments just since 1949, thirty-six of them successful. Most of those governments had been put in place by election and were arguably as “democratic” as the United States if not more so. Without a doubt, in most cases, the governments overthrown were replaced by less democratic regimes. The author of that list, William Blum, notes in his book, America’s Deadliest Export, that just since World War II, the United States has also interfered in at least 30 foreign elections, attempted to assassinate over 50 foreign leaders, and dropped bombs on people in over 30 countries. On August 5, 2015, President Barack Obama bragged that he had himself ordered the bombing of seven countries.
13. If you persistently asked for money for a trip, finally got some, went on the trip to a foreign country, and then murdered anyone you met there who failed to give you lots of gold, would a good teacher praise your persistence in asking for the money for the trip?
Of course not.
14. Would they praise Christopher Columbus’ persistence?
Most U.S. text books and teachers do, yes.
15. Can you name some Virginians who chose to free everyone they had enslaved while Thomas Jefferson was enslaving more people?
In the 1770s a group of Quakers in Virginia including Warner Mifflin illegally freed their slaves, with none of the disastrous consequences predicted by other slave owners. In 1782 the Quakers successfully lobbied the Virginia legislature to create a law allowing people to free anyone they held in slavery. Some chose to do just that. In 1819, Edward Coles bought land in Illinois and gave it to those he had held enslaved in Virginia. He also became governor of Illinois, and a painting of his act of liberation hangs in the Illinois capitol rotunda. Jefferson had urged Coles not to do it. And although Thaddeus Kosciuszko had left Jefferson nearly $20,000 with which to free slaves, Jefferson declined to send anyone to freedom in Illinois with Coles and declined to accept the money. Coles was also President James Madison’s private secretary and envoy to Czar Alexander of Russia. Meanwhile, Jefferson’s own private secretary William Short urged Jefferson to experiment with allowing those he kept in slavery to work toward the purchase of their own freedom, with plans to then employ them as tenant farmers. Jefferson refused.
16. What is the appropriate justification for Jefferson enslaving people?
It changes too rapidly, as each new justification is laughed out the door; you shouldn’t expect to keep up.
17. What percentage of people in the world are in the United States?
About 4.4 percent.
18. What percentage of prisoners in the world are in the United States?
According to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2,220,300 adults were incarcerated in U.S. federal and state prisons, and county jails in 2013, along with 54,148 kids in “juvenile detention.” Another 4,751,400 adults were on probation or parole. The 2,274,448 incarcerated is about 25% of the world’s prisoners, more prisoners than in any other nation, and a higher incarceration rate than in any other nation — about 0.7% of the U.S. population. Those imprisoned or on probation or parole add up to 2.2% of the U.S. population.
19. What percentage of military spending in the world is by the U.S. government?
The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute counts world military spending in 2014 as $1,776 billion and U.S. military spending as $610 billion or 34%. However, SIPRI leaves out all kinds of military expenditures, which the U.S. government funnels through numerous departments in addition to “Defense,” including Homeland Security, State, Energy, etc., as well as debt for past military spending. A total count puts U.S. military spending at approximately $1 trillion per year, and probably does not raise most other nations’ figures to the same extent.
20. What percentage is by the U.S. government and its close allies?
Figures from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute put that at approximately 75% to 80% of world military spending, depending on which nations are included. Spending by China and Russia adds up to almost 17%.
21. What percentage of foreign military troops stationed in nations around the world are U.S. troops?
Almost all of them. The United States has troops at its own bases and at bases identified as belonging to the host country, all over the globe — several hundred to over 1,000 bases depending on how you count them. Britain and France together have 13 foreign bases, Russia 9, and 1 each for Japan, South Korea, the Netherlands, India, Australia, Chile, Turkey, and Israel. U.S. troops and employees and family members at foreign bases add up to well over 500,000 U.S. citizens abroad. The rest of the world’s 30 bases don’t compare.
22. What percentage of the world’s nations have U.S. troops in them?
At least 90% of the world’s nations have at least some small number of U.S. troops stationed in them, and at least 68% have so-called “special forces” of the U.S. military active in them. U.S. television sports announcers routinely thank U.S. troops for watching from 175 countries.
23. In what nations of the world do people have the longest life expectancy? Name 3 of the top 10.
Here are the top 25, in order from the top down, according to the World Health Organization: Japan, Spain, Andorra, Australia, Switzerland, Italy, Singapore, San Marino, Canada, Cyprus, France, Iceland, Israel, Luxembourg, Monaco, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Republic of Korea, Finland, Portugal, Ireland, Malta, Netherlands, United Kingdom.
24. What nations of the world poll highest for happiness? Name 3 of the top 10.
Here are the top 10 according to the World Happiness Report 2015, in order from top down: Switzerland, Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Canada, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden, New Zealand, Australia. Here are the top 10 from top down ranked as experiencing well being by the Happy Planet Index: Denmark, Canada, Norway, Venezuela, Switzerland, Sweden, Netherlands, Israel, Finland, Australia.
25. What nations of the world have the highest inequality of wealth? Name 3 of the top 10.
According to one calculation, these are the top 10 in order from most unequal: Russian Federation, Ukraine, Lebanon, United States, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Zimbabwe, Hong Kong, South Africa, Indonesia. According to another, these are: Namibia, Zimbabwe, Denmark, Switzerland, United States, Brazil, Gabon, Central African Republic, Swaziland, Guatemala.
26. What nations of the world have the greatest economic opportunity and mobility? Name 3 of the top 10.
There are many ways to measure this, and they all rank the United States below most other wealthy countries. Here are the top 10, in order from the top down, for opportunity and mobility by one study: Denmark, Norway, Finland, Canada, Australia, Sweden, New Zealand, Germany, Japan, Spain.
27. What nations’ students score highest in academic tests? Name 3 of the top 10.
There are lots of rankings. According to one set, here are the top 20 in order from the top down in math: Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, Macao, Japan, Lichtenstein, Switzerland, Netherlands, Estonia, Finland, Canada, Poland, Belgium, Germany, Vietnam, Austria, Australia, Ireland, Slovenia. And in reading: Hong Kong, Singapore, Japan, Korea, Finland, Ireland, Taiwan, Canada, Poland, Estonia, Lichtenstein, New Zealand, Australia, Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Macao, Vietnam, Germany, France. 28. How many of the world’s 50 wealthiest nations provide free and universal health coverage?
The answer is, of course, 49.The entire wealthy or “developed” world does so, with the exceptions of the United States, Belarus, Serbia, and Bulgaria. Those last three are not in the wealthiest 50.
29. Which countries provide the best retirement security? Name 3 of the top 10.
Here is a ranking of the top 10 from the top down: Switzerland, Norway, Australia, Iceland, Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, Germany, New Zealand.
30. How much does it cost to attend college in Brazil, Germany, Finland, France, Norway, Slovenia, and Sweden?
31. In which nations do people average the shortest working hours? Name 3 of the top 10.
According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in 2012, the top 10 in order from the top down are: Netherlands, Germany, Norway, France, Denmark, Ireland, Belgium, Austria, Luxembourg, Sweden.
32. How many wealthy nations guarantee no paid parental leave?
One, the United States.
33. Which nations have the highest labor union representation? Name 3 of the top 10.
Here are the top 10, at least among those in this study, in order from the top down: Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Ireland, Austria, Italy, Canada, United Kingdom. Here they are, at least among those in this study: Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Belgium, Norway, Austria, Ireland, Italy, Canada, Australia.
34. In which nations of the world does one face the lowest risk of violent crime? Name 3 of the top 10.
Here are the top 25 in order from the top down for lowest murder rates: Monaco, Liechtenstein, Singapore, Iceland, Japan, French Polynesia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Switzerland, Indonesia, Slovenia, San Marino, Sweden, Algeria, Luxembourg, Germany, Spain, Denmark, Poland, Saudi Arabia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Austria, Italy, Czech Republic.
35. Approximately how much money does the U.S. government spend every year?
Approximately $3.5 trillion.
37. How much of that money is in dedicated permanent funds separate from the rest of the budget or otherwise mandatory, and how much is subject to the discretion of the Congress?
About two-thirds is mandatory spending including debt interest, Social Security, and healthcare. The other third is discretionary.
38. What percentage of discretionary spending is for war preparations?
Roughly 50%, leaving the other 50% for everything else.
39. What percentage is for foreign aid, education, or environmental protection?
Here’s a pie chart. Compared to the military’s 50% which of course goes through numerous departments of the government, foreign aid receives 2%, education 6%, and energy and the environment 3.5%.
40. What is the correlation between Congress members’ actions and their sources of funding?
It depends on the issue, but on many important issues it is extremely high, as one can see by examining particular votes. There is debate over whether Congress members are bribed to act or rewarded for having acted, but both sides acknowledge the correlation. The correlation is even more strongly documented between funding and gaining access to Congress members, and the impact of that access is almost certainly greater than zero. The correlation between funding sources and actions contributes to the general trend noted in #46 below.
41. What is the correlation between greatest campaign funding and electoral victory?
It’s almost perfect. In 2008, won.
42. What is the success rate in Congressional reelection campaigns by incumbents?
45. How many private insurance companies insure nuclear power plants?
None. They’re not crazy. Paying for future disasters is left to tax payers.
46. Is the United States a democracy, republic, communist collective, dictatorship, or oligarchy?
The United States is an oligarchy.
47. Which nations are the world’s top weapons exporters?
According to the Congressional Research Service, aSIPRI, the U.S. shipped 31 percent of the weapons exported worldwide between 2010 and 2014. Russia shipped 27 percent, China 5 percent, Germany 5 percent, and France 5 percent.
48. Name at least three recent wars in which weapons from the same nation were used on both sides.
U.S. weapons went up against U.S. weapons in Syria, Yemen, and Afghanistan, among numerous other places.
49. Explain, by comparison to Canada, how the United States benefitted from its revolution against England.
The United States is not one giant prison full of miserable captives, like Canada is, of course! Also, recognition of satire is way higher in the United States than in the humorless north.
50. How did the U.S. revolution benefit Native Americans, farmers, enslaved people, and women?
It generally didn’t, and for Native Americans it was very bad news indeed, as the British had restricted Western expansion. For those held in slavery, it doomed any chance of earlier liberation — except for those who took the opportunity to escape to the British side.
51. Were there more or fewer popular rebellions in the United States after the revolution?
About the same.
52. What nation did Congress members predict would welcome invaders as liberators in 1812?
53. Did it?
54. What nation did the United States steal the northern half of in the 1840s through a bloody war despite that nation’s willingness to negotiate a nonviolent sale of the land?
55. What was the one condition the United States insisted on in acquiring that land?
It must all become territory that would allow slavery.
56. What President lied to start that war?
57. What Congressman denounced his lies?
58. What hero of that war and future president denounced the war as an immoral outrage?
59. What percentage of nations that abolished slavery fought civil wars before doing so?
Zero. Oh wait, there was one.
60. Why did Mississippi say it was seceding from the United States?
To maintain slavery.
61. How was slavery ended in Washington DC?
As in other countries, through compensated emancipation.
62. How many years since 1776 has the United States gone without any wars?
63. What evidence was there that Spain blew up the Maine?
64. What did Spain propose instead of the Spanish-American war?
Binding neutral investigation and arbitration.
65. Name three reasons President McKinley gave for occupying the Philippines.
He said it would be “cowardly and dishonorable” to give the islands back to Spain, “bad business” to give them to commercial rivals Germany and France, and impossible to leave them to “anarchy and misrule” under, you know, the people who lived there.
66. Name three good reasons for World War I.
This question was, of course, a trick as there aren’t any.
67. What was the general theme of the most common lies of the Four-Minute Men?
Fabricated and exaggerated tales of German atrocities in Belgium. The lies were so outrageous that many recalled them when told tales of Nazi atrocities that were actually true.
68. What was the Lusitania carrying on its fateful voyage, and what advertisement had Germany placed in U.S. newspapers prior to its sailing?
It was carrying U.S. weapons to Britain. Germany had warned that it would attack the ship and that people would be sailing at their own risk.
69. What U.S. Secretary of State resigned over President Woodrow Wilson’s position regarding the Lusitania?
William Jennings Bryan.
70. What were the Greer and the Kerney and which U.S. President lied about them?
On September 4, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave a “fireside chat“ radio address in which he claimed that a German submarine, completely unprovoked, had attacked the United States destroyer Greer, which — despite being called a destroyer — had been harmlessly delivering mail. The Senate Naval Affairs Committee questioned Admiral Harold Stark, Chief of Naval Operations, who said the Greer had been tracking the German submarine and relaying its location to a British airplane, which had dropped depth charges on the submarine‘s location without success. The Greer had continued tracking the submarine for hours before the submarine turned and fired torpedoes. A month and a half later, Roosevelt told a similar tall tale about the USS Kearny which engaged in warfare against German submarines and was not innocently minding its own business as Roosevelt implied.
71. Is the Monroe Doctrine popular in Latin America?
It’s generally hated as an assertion of imperial dominance.
72. What U.S. President encouraged Japanese imperialism, promising them a Monroe Doctrine for Asia?
73. Name one or more observers who predicted at the time of the Treaty of Versailles that it would lead to World War II. Why did they say that?
Jane Addams, E.D. Morel, John Maynard Keynes, and others predicted that the harsh vindictiveness of the treaty would lead to a new war. They seem to have been right. Combined with other factors, including Western preference for Nazism over Communism, and a growing arms race, bitter resentment in Germany did lead to a new war. Ferdinand Foch claimed the treaty was too lenient on Germany and would therefore create a new war, which is of course also true if one considers the possibility of having completely destroyed Germany or something close to that. Woodrow Wilson predicted that failure of the United States to join the League of Nations would lead to a new war, but it is far from clear that joining the League would have prevented the war.
74. Would a stalemate in World War I, rather than a lopsided victory, have led to the same future?
Clearly not. There’s no way to say where it would have led, but there is at least a plausible case to be made that had the United States stayed out of World War I, and had that war concluded without a clear victor and loser, that the next war would not have come in the same way or at the same time. It’s difficult to imagine that this change alone would have prevented any major new wars from coming, absent a cultural rejection of war more powerful than what actually came in many countries in the 1920s.
75. How many right-wing coups were seriously planned against President Franklin Roosevelt?
At least one, possibly more. One in 1934 resulted in Congressional hearings and a report that stated: “In the last few weeks of the committee’s official life it received evidence showing that certain persons had made an attempt to establish a fascist organization in this country. No evidence was presented and this committee had none to show a connection between this effort and any fascist activity of any European country. There is no question that these attempts were discussed, were planned, and might have been placed in execution when and if the financial backers deemed it expedient. This committee received evidence from Maj. Gen Smedley D. Butler (retired), twice decorated by the Congress of the United States. He testified before the committee as to conversations with one Gerald C. MacGuire in which the latter is alleged to have suggested the formation of a fascist army under the leadership of General Butler. MacGuire denied these allegations under oath, but your committee was able to verify all the pertinent statements made by General Butler, with the exception of the direct statement suggesting the creation of the organization. This, however, was corroborated in the correspondence of MacGuire with his principal, Robert Sterling Clark, of New York City, while MacGuire was abroad studying the various forms of veterans organizations of Fascist character.” A second coup plot in 1940 is alleged by Cornelius Vanderbilt Jr., who claims to have tipped off Eleanor Roosevelt. Perhaps that one was no more than chatter. Perhaps, on the contrary, it merited serious concern. Perhaps there were others.
76. Who was Smedley Butler and what did he conclude about the institution of war?
Smedley Darlington Butler (July 30, 1881 – June 21, 1940) was a United States Marine Corps major general, the highest rank authorized at that time, and at the time of his death the most decorated Marine in U.S. history. He concluded: “War is a racket. It always has been. It is possibly the oldest, easily the most profitable, surely the most vicious. It is the only one international in scope. It is the only one in which the profits are reckoned in dollars and the losses in lives. A racket is best described, I believe, as something that is not what it seems to the majority of the people. Only a small ‘inside’ group knows what it is about. It is conducted for the benefit of the very few, at the expense of the very many. Out of war a few people make huge fortunes.”
77. Why was Butler locked up in Quantico?
In 1931, Butler publicly repeated the story that a passenger in Benito Mussolini’s speeding automobile had witnessed Mussolini run over a small child and not stop. Italy protested, and President Hoover forced the Secretary of the Navy to court-martial Butler. He was locked up in Quantico Marine Base, which he himself had commanded. Cornelius Vanderbilt Jr. came forward and said he had been the passenger in Mussolini’s car.
78. What U.S. whistleblower was later locked up in Quantico and kept naked in a tiny cell?
Chelsea (at that time Bradley) Manning.
79. What had she exposed?
Manning exposed horrible U.S. war crimes and duplicitous diplomacy by the U.S. government.
80. During the 1930s and early 1940s U.S. peace activists held demonstrations against growing U.S. hostility and war preparations against what nation?
81. Prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, what did Winston Churchill tell his cabinet that President Franklin Roosevelt had promised to do in order to bring the United States into the war in Europe?
On April 28, 1941, Churchill wrote a secret directive to his war cabinet: “It may be taken as almost certain that the entry of Japan into the war would be followed by the immediate entry of the United States on our side.” On August 18, 1941, Churchill met with his cabinet at 10 Downing Street. The meeting had some similarity to the July 23, 2002, meeting at the same address, the minutes of which became known as the Downing Street Minutes. Both meetings revealed secret U.S. intentions to go to war. In the 1941 meeting, Churchill told his cabinet, according to the minutes: “The President had said he would wage war but not declare it.” In addition, “Everything was to be done to force an incident.”
82. What did FDR use a forged Nazi map to lie to the U.S. public about, and who forged the map?
Roosevelt claimed to have in his possession a secret map produced by Hitler’s government that showed plans for a Nazi conquest of South America. The Nazi government denounced this as a lie, blaming of course a Jewish conspiracy. The map, which Roosevelt refused to show the public, in fact actually showed routes in South America flown by American airplanes, with notations in German describing the distribution of aviation fuel. It was a British forgery, and apparently of about the same quality as the forgeries President George W. Bush would later use to show that Iraq had been trying to purchase uranium. Roosevelt also claimed falsely to have come into possession of a secret plan produced by the Nazis for the replacement of all religions with Nazism.
83. What was the Ludlow Amendment?
The Ludlow Amendment was a proposed amendment to the U.S. Constitution requiring a vote by the American people before the United States could go to war. In 1938, this amendment appeared likely to pass in Congress. Then President Franklin Roosevelt sent a letter to the Speaker of the House claiming that a president would be unable to conduct an effective foreign policy if it passed, after which the amendment failed 209-188.
84. Prior to Pearl Harbor, in the diary of the U.S. Secretary of War, when did he say FDR expected a Japanese attack?
On November 25, 1941, Secretary of War Henry Stimson wrote in his diary that he’d met in the Oval Office with Army Chief of Staff George Marshall, President Franklin Roosevelt, Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox, Admiral Harold Stark, and Secretary of State Cordell Hull. Roosevelt had told them the Japanese were likely to attack soon, possibly next Monday. That would have been December 1st, six days before the attack actually came. (Roosevelt did not specify Pearl Harbor as the expected location.) “The question,” Stimson wrote, “was how we should maneuver them into the position of firing the first shot without allowing too much danger to ourselves. It was a difficult proposition.”
85. Did the United States begin supporting China in its war against Japanese aggression before or after Pearl Harbor?
As early as 1932 the United States had been talking with China about providing airplanes, pilots, and training for its war with Japan. In November 1940, Roosevelt loaned China one hundred million dollars for war with Japan, and after consulting with the British, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau made plans to send the Chinese bombers with U.S. crews to use in bombing Tokyo and other Japanese cities. On December 21, 1940, two weeks shy of a year before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, China’s Minister of Finance T.V. Soong and Colonel Claire Chennault, a retired U.S. Army flier who was working for the Chinese and had been urging them to use American pilots to bomb Tokyo since at least 1937, met in Henry Morgenthau’s dining room to plan the firebombing of Japan. Morgenthau said he could get men released from duty in the U.S. Army Air Corps if the Chinese could pay them $1,000 per month. Soong agreed. On May 24, 1941, the New York Times reported on U.S. training of the Chinese air force, and the provision of “numerous fighting and bombing planes” to China by the United States. “Bombing of Japanese Cities is Expected” read the subheadline. By July, the Joint Army-Navy Board had approved a plan called JB 355 to firebomb Japan. A front corporation would buy American planes to be flown by American volunteers trained by Chennault and paid by another front group. Roosevelt approved, and his China expert Lauchlin Currie, in the words of Nicholson Baker, “wired Madame Chaing Kai-Shek and Claire Chennault a letter that fairly begged for interception by Japanese spies.” Whether or not that was the entire point, this was the letter: “I am very happy to be able to report today the President directed that sixty-six bombers be made available to China this year with twenty-four to be delivered immediately. He also approved a Chinese pilot training program here. Details through normal channels. Warm regards.” The U.S. ambassador had said “in case of a break with the United States” the Japanese would bomb Pearl Harbor. The 1st American Volunteer Group (AVG) of the Chinese Air Force, also known as the Flying Tigers, moved ahead with recruitment and training immediately and first saw combat on December 20, 1941, twelve days (local time) after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor.
86. What was President Roosevelt’s approach to Jewish refugees?
When a resolution was introduced in the U.S. Senate in 1934 expressing “surprise and pain” at Germany’s actions, and asking that Germany restore rights to Jews, the State Department “caused it to be buried in committee.” By 1937 Poland had developed a plan to send Jews to Madagascar, and the Dominican Republic had a plan to accept them as well. Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain of Great Britain came up with a plan to send Germany’s Jews to Tanganyika in East Africa. Representatives of the United States, Britain, and South American nations met at Lake Geneva in July 1938 and all agreed that none of them would accept the Jews. On November 15, 1938, reporters asked President Franklin Roosevelt what could be done. He replied that he would refuse to consider allowing more immigrants than the standard quota system allowed. Bills were introduced in Congress to allow 20,000 Jews under the age of 14 to enter the United States. Senator Robert Wagner (D., N.Y.) said, “Thousands of American families have already expressed their willingness to take refugee children into their homes.” First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt set aside her anti-Semitism to support the legislation, but her husband successfully blocked it for years. In July 1940, Adolf Eichman, “architect of the holocaust,” intended to send all Jews to Madagascar, which now belonged to Germany, France having been occupied. The ships would need to wait only until the British, which now meant Winston Churchill, ended their blockade. That day never came. On November 25, 1940, the French ambassador asked the U.S. Secretary of State to consider accepting German Jewish refugees then in France. On December 21st, the Secretary of State declined. By July 1941, the Nazis had determined that a final solution for the Jews could consist of genocide rather than expulsion.
87. What percentage of World War II propaganda posters in the United States included mention of the need to rescue Jews?
88. Why did the New York Times downplay the story of the holocaust?
It buried its reporting on the holocaust and on the treatment of Jews in Germany on back pages of the paper. The paper later admitted to this awful failure. A column in the New York Times explained:
“This reticence has been a subject of extensive scholarly inquiry and also much speculation and condemnation. Critics have blamed ‘self-hating Jews’ and ‘anti-Zionists’ among the paper’s owners and staff. Defenders have cited the sketchiness of much information about the death camps in Eastern Europe and also the inability of prewar generations to fully comprehend the industrial gassing of millions of innocents — a machinery of death not yet exposed by those chilling mounds of Jews’ bones, hair, shoes, rings. No single explanation seems to suffice for what was surely the century’s bitterest journalistic failure. The Times, like most media of that era, fervently embraced the wartime policies of the American and British governments, both of which strongly resisted proposals to rescue Jews or to offer them haven. After a decade of economic depression, both governments had political reasons to discourage immigration and diplomatic reasons to refuse Jewish settlements in regions like Palestine.
Then, too, papers owned by Jewish families, like The Times, the reluctance to highlight the systematic slaughter of Jews was also undoubtedly influenced by the views of the publisher, Arthur Hays Sulzberger. He believed strongly and publicly that Judaism was a religion, not a race or nationality — that Jews should be separate only in the way they worshiped. He thought they needed no state or political and social institutions of their own. He went to great lengths to avoid having The Times branded a ‘Jewish newspaper.’ He resented other publications for emphasizing the Jewishness of people in the news.”
89. Why did Congresswoman Jeanette Rankin say she voted against U.S. entry into World War II?
The day after the attack, Congress voted for war with Japan. FDR’s first draft of a declaration was for war on Germany as well, but he held off. Congresswoman Jeannette Rankin (R., Mont.), the first woman ever elected to Congress, and who had voted against World War I, stood alone in opposing World War II (just as Congresswoman Barbara Lee would stand alone against attacking Afghanistan 60 years later). One year after the vote, on December 8, 1942, Rankin put extended remarks into the Congressional Record explaining her opposition. She cited the work of a British propagandist who had argued in 1938 for using Japan to bring the United States into the war. She cited Henry Luce’s reference in Life magazine on July 20, 1942, to “the Chinese for whom the U.S. had delivered the ultimatum that brought on Pearl Harbor.” She introduced evidence that at the Atlantic Conference on August 12, 1941, Roosevelt had assured Churchill that the United States would bring economic pressure to bear on Japan. “I cited,” Rankin later wrote, “the State Department Bulletin of December 20, 1941, which revealed that on September 3 a communication had been sent to Japan demanding that it accept the principle of ‘nondisturbance of the status quo in the Pacific,’ which amounted to demanding guarantees of the inviolateness of the white empires in the Orient.” Rankin found that the Economic Defense Board had gotten economic sanctions under way less than a week after the Atlantic Conference. On December 2, 1941, the New York Times had reported, in fact, that Japan had been “cut off from about 75 percent of her normal trade by the Allied blockade.” Rankin also cited the statement of Lieutenant Clarence E. Dickinson, U.S.N., in the 90. During the rise of Nazism, did Wall Street investment in Germany decrease, stay the same, or increase?
Prescott Sheldon Bush’s early business efforts, like those of his grandson George W. Bush, tended to fail. He married the daughter of a very rich man named George Herbert Walker who installed Prescott Bush as an executive in Thyssen and Flick. From then on, Prescott’s business dealings went better, and he entered politics. The Thyssen in the firm’s name was a German named Fritz Thyssen, a major financial backer of Hitler referred to in the New York Herald-Tribune as “Hitler’s Angel.” Many Wall Street executives viewed the Nazis as enemies of communism. American investment in Germany increased 48.5 percent between 1929 and 1940 even as it declined sharply everywhere else in continental Europe. Major investors included Ford, General Motors, General Electric, Standard Oil, Texaco, International Harvester, ITT, and IBM. Bonds were sold in New York in the 1930s that financed the Aryanization of German companies and real estate stolen from Jews. Many companies continued doing business with Germany through the war, even if it meant benefitting from concentration-camp labor. IBM even provided the Hollerith Machines used to keep track of Jews and others to be murdered, while ITT created the Nazis’ communications system as well as bomb parts and then collected $27 million from the U.S. government for war damage to its German factories. U.S. pilots were instructed not to bomb factories in Germany that were owned by U.S. companies. When Cologne was leveled, its Ford plant, which provided military equipment for the Nazis, was spared and even used as an air raid shelter. Henry Ford had been funding the Nazis’ anti-Semitic propaganda since the 1920s. His German plants fired all employees with Jewish ancestry in 1935, before the Nazis required it. In 1938, Hitler awarded Ford the Grand Cross of the Supreme Order of the German Eagle, an honor only three people had previously received, one of them being Benito Mussolini. Hitler’s loyal colleague and leader of the Nazi Party in Vienna, Baldur von Schirach, had an American mother and said her son had discovered anti-Semitism by reading Henry Ford’s The Eternal Jew. The companies Prescott Bush profited from included one engaged in mining operations in Poland using slave labor from Auschwitz. Two former slave laborers later sued the U.S. government and Bush’s heirs for $40 billion, but the suit was dismissed by a U.S. court on the grounds of state sovereignty. Until the United States entered World War II it was legal for Americans to do business with Germany, but in late 1942 Prescott Bush’s business interests were seized under the Trading with the Enemy Act. Among those businesses involved was the Hamburg America Lines, for which Prescott Bush served as a manager. A Congressional committee found that Hamburg America Lines had offered free passage to Germany for journalists willing to write favorably about the Nazis, and had brought Nazi sympathizers to the United States.
91. How many people died in World War II?
See number 2 above.
92. What percentage of them died in German concentration camps?
About 16 percent. See number 2 above.
93. Who said “If we see that Germany is winning we ought to help Russia and if Russia is winning we ought to help Germany, and that way let them kill as many as possible, although I don’t want to see Hitler victorious under any circumstances. Neither of them thinks anything of their pledged word”?
Harry S. Truman.
94. What future director of the CIA rescued numerous top Nazis from prosecution and employed some of them for the United States?
95. How many former Nazis were employed by the U.S. military in Operation Paperclip?
former Nazi scientists and doctors, including some of Adolf Hitler’s closest collaborators, including men responsible for murder, slavery, and human experimentation, including men convicted of war crimes, men acquitted of war crimes, and men who never stood trial. Some of the Nazis tried at Nuremberg had already been working for the U.S. in either Germany or the U.S. prior to the trials. Some were protected from their past by the U.S. government for years, as they lived and worked in Boston Harbor, Long Island, Maryland, Ohio, Texas, Alabama, and elsewhere, or were flown by the U.S. government to Argentina to protect them from prosecution. Some trial transcripts were classified in their entirety to avoid exposing the pasts of important U.S. scientists. Some of the Nazis brought over were frauds who had passed themselves off as scientists, some of whom subsequently learned their fields while working for the U.S. military.
96. What U.S. space agency’s first director was a former Nazi who had employed slave labor?
97. Who remarked in 1937, “I do not agree that the dog in a manger has the final right to the manger even though he may have lain there for a very long time. I do not admit that right. I do not admit for instance, that a great wrong has been done to the Red Indians of America or the black people of Australia. I do not admit that a wrong has been done to these people by the fact that a stronger race, a higher-grade race, a more worldly wise race to put it that way, has come in and taken their place”?
98. Within hours of Germany’s surrender in World War II, Winston Churchill proposed a new war using what troops against what nation?
German troops against the Soviet Union.
99. When did Japan first express willingness to surrender on the terms that actually ended World War II, before or after the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
Weeks before the first bomb was dropped, on July 13, 1945, Japan sent a telegram to the Soviet Union expressing its desire to surrender and end the war. The United States had broken Japan’s codes and read the telegram. President Truman referred in his diary to “the telegram from Jap Emperor asking for peace.” Truman had been informed through Swiss and Portuguese channels of Japanese peace overtures as early as three months before Hiroshima. Japan objected only to surrendering unconditionally and giving up its emperor, but the United States insisted on those terms until after the bombs fell, at which point it allowed Japan to keep its emperor.
100. When President Truman announced the bombing of Hiroshima what did he lie that Hiroshima was?
He called it a “military base.” It was a city that contained a military base, but 85% of the people in the city were not connected to the base.
101. What nations of the world have nuclear weapons, and how many do they have?
Nine countries have 15,800 nuclear war heads. Russia has 7500, USA 7200, France 300, China 260, UK 215, Pakistan 130, India 120, Israel 80, North Korea 10. These countries “host” U.S. nuclear weapons: 102. What nations have official policies of potentially using nuclear weapons first?
Russia, the United States, France, UK, Pakistan, Israel, North Korea.
103. What does the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty require nations with nuclear weapons to do?
“Each of the Parties to the Treaty undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.”
104. How has Iran violated that treaty?
It has not.
105. What do the Gulf of Tonkin Incident and a virgin birth have in common?
They never happened.
106. What was Operation Northwoods?
This was a plan drafted by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1962 that called for the CIA or other U.S. government operatives to commit acts of terrorism against U.S. civilians and military targets, blaming it on the Cuban government, and using it to justify a war against Cuba. The plan was not acted on, and was successfully kept secret for 40 years.
107. Who was Mohammad Mossadegh?
The democratically elected president of Iran overthrown by the CIA which installed a brutal dictatorship later overthrown by an Islamic revolution.
108. What nation proposed to abandon its nuclear energy program in 2003 until the U.S. dismissed the proposal?
109. What nation proposed peace negotiations before the Korean War?
The Soviet Union.
110. What nation tried to spread bubonic plague in North Korea?
The United States.
111. What U.S. presidential candidate secretly sabotaged peace talks for Vietnam?
112. Did the United States begin arming Islamic radicals in Afghanistan, who would develop into al Qaeda, before or after the Soviet invasion?
Before, and with the purpose of drawing the Soviet Union into a long war.
113. During the U.S.-led war on Afghanistan that began in 2001, what were the primary sources of funding for the other, or Taliban, side of the war?
Drug sales and payments from the U.S. for safe passage on roads.
114. Prior to the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan, whom did the Taliban offer to turn over to a neutral country to have put on trial?
Osama bin Laden.
115. How large has the al Qaeda presence in Afghanistan been during the war that began in 2001?
116. How large was the al Qaeda presence in Iraq prior to the 2003 U.S. invasion?
117. Has international terrorism decreased, stayed the same, or increased during the Global War on Terrorism?
118. The U.S. government originally announced that a mission to kill or capture Osama bin Laden had succeeded despite his armed resistance. What did numerous people involved in that mission later change about that story?
He was unarmed, and capturing him alive was never a serious option.
119. When Germany reunited and the Cold War ended, what promise did the United States make to Russia regarding NATO expansion?
It promised not to expand an inch toward Russia.
120. Was the promise kept?
121. What nation’s army in 1990 took babies out of incubators and left them on the floor to die?
Nobody’s. It was a lie about Iraq orchestrated by a Washington, D.C., public relations firm.
122. Prior to the Persian Gulf War, what nation offered to peacefully withdraw from Kuwait?
123. Prior to September 11, 2001, what did a CIA memo warn President George W. Bush might happen?
“Bin Laden Determined To Strike in US” was the President’s Daily Brief prepared by the CIA and given to President George W. Bush on August 6, 2001. The brief warned of terrorism threats from Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda including hijackings.
124. What nation was behind anthrax attacks in 2001 in the United States?
The U.S. government quickly claimed that al Qaeda and/or Iraq was to blame, and the U.S. media repeated this many times. There was no evidence for it. The FBI blames a U.S. government employee. Congress members and others doubt that conclusion. The anthrax has been identified as coming from the United States. The U.S. government has settled lawsuits from victims without admitting guilt.
125. Who in January 2003 proposed that a means of starting a war on Iraq would be to paint an airplane with United Nations colors and fly it low over Iraq until it was shot at?
President George W. Bush.
126. What portion of the nation of Iraq did the Iraqi government offer to let U.S. troops search prior to the 2003 U.S. attack?
All of it.
127. In 2003, how quickly did Iraq promise to hold
"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:EN-US”>internationally monitored elections if it were not attacked?
128. Who offered to leave Iraq in 2003 if he could keep $1 billion and if Iraq would not be attacked?
129. Whose 2003 testimony at the United Nations in favor of attacking Iraq included fabricated dialogue from supposedly wiretapped conversations and numerous claims that his own staff had warned him would not even seem plausible?
130. What war’s aftermath gave birth to a new al Qaeda spin-off called ISIS or ISIL or Islamic State or Daesh?
The 2003- U.S.-led war on Iraq.
131. Where did ISIS get most of its weapons?
It seized them from Iraq, many of those weapons provided by the United States.
132. What have been top sources of ISIS funding?
Oil sales through Turkey, funding from Saudi Arabian and other Gulf supporters, looting.
133. What did ISIS ask the U.S. to do in order to boost its recruiting?
134. Did the U.S. do it?
135. Did it boost ISIS recruiting?
136. Did the U.S. drone war on Yemen replace a worse form of war or help create one?
It helped create one.
137. Who supplied Saudi Arabia with its weapons for its 2015 war on Yemen?
The United States.
138. Does the U.S. know the names of most of the people it targets with missiles from drones?
139. Does the U.S. target with drones only people it cannot arrest and put on trial?
140. Name three former top U.S. officials who have warned that drone wars produce more enemies than they kill.
says: “We’ve tended to say, drop another bomb via a drone and put out a headline that ‘we killed Abu Bag of Doughnuts’ and it makes us all feel good for 24 hours. And you know what? It doesn’t matter. It just made them a martyr, it just created a new reason to fight us even harder.” He also says: “When you drop a bomb from a drone… you are going to cause more damage than you are going to cause good. The more weapons we give, the more bombs we drop, that just… fuels the conflict.”
Former CIA Bin Laden Unit Chief Michael Scheuer "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"”> the more the U.S. fights terrorism the more it creates terrorism.
Admiral Dennis Blair, the former director of National Intelligence wrote in the New York Times that while “drone attacks did help reduce the Qaeda leadership in Pakistan, they also increased hatred of America” and damaged “our ability to work with Pakistan [in] eliminating Taliban sanctuaries, encouraging Indian-Pakistani dialogue, and making Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal more secure.”
The Guardian reported on January 7, 2013: “Michael Boyle, who was on Obama’s counter-terrorism group in the run-up to his election in 2008, said the US administration’s growing reliance on drone technology was having ‘adverse strategic effects that have not been properly weighed against the tactical gains associated with killing terrorists … The vast increase in the number of deaths of low-ranking operatives has deepened political resistance to the US programme in Pakistan, Yemen and other countries.'”
The New York Times reported on March 22, 2013: “Gen. James E. Cartwright, the former vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and a favored adviser during Mr. Obama’s first term, expressed concern in a speech here on Thursday that America’s aggressive campaign of drone strikes could be undermining long-term efforts to battle extremism. ‘We’re seeing that blowback. If you’re trying to kill your way to a solution, no matter how precise you are, you’re going to upset people even if they’re not targeted.'”
“The CIA station chief in Islamabad thought the drone strikes in 2005 and 2006 — which, while infrequent at that time, were often based on bad intelligence and had resulted in many civilian casualties — had done little except fuel hatred for the United States inside Pakistan and put Pakistani officials in the uncomfortable position of having to lie about the strikes.” — The Way of the Knife, Mark Mazzetti, Kindle loc. 2275.
A leaked internal CIA document admits the U.S. drone program is counterproductive.
You wouldn’t know this from mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin”>New York Times